JWEE https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee <p>Founded in 2008, the <span style="color: #f87217;"><strong>Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education (JWEE)</strong></span> is dedicated to fostering research, analysis and study concerning the entrepreneurship and education of women. The journal is published by the Institute of Economic Sciences <strong>twice a year (May and November</strong>) in electronic format, in English.</p> <p>Considering main topics such as entrepreneurial potential and gender impact, gender differences and socio-economic environment in the development of entrepreneurial intentions, the resilience of women-owned businesses, entrepreneurial leadership (gender aspects), female entrepreneurship and organizational culture, entrepreneurial education of women, as well as the participation of authors from more than 50 countries, it has fully justified its international importance and reputation.</p> <p>The journal is included in the following indexing databases: <strong>EconLit-American Economic Association</strong>, <strong>RePEc</strong>, <strong>ECONBIZ</strong>, <strong>DOAJ</strong>, <strong>ROAD</strong> and <strong>Scopus</strong>. According to the latest edition of the SCImago Journal Rank (powered by Scopus), the Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education (JWEE) published by the Institute of Economic Sciences has been awarded <strong>Q3</strong> status for the category Business, Management, and Accounting (miscellaneous) and category <strong>Q2</strong> Gender Studies for 2023.</p> <p>Since 2022, JWEE has been classified as a National journal with international significance (M24) according to the Ministry of Science, Technological Development and Innovation.</p> <p>Chief Editor is Acad. Prof. Dr Mirjana Radović-Marković, is also the creator and the founder of the journal.</p> <h3><a href="https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/about/editorialTeam">Editorial team</a></h3> <p>&nbsp;</p> Institute of Economic Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia en-US JWEE 1821-1283 <p>Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, authors shall transfer the copyright to the publisher. If the submitted manuscript is not accepted for printing by the journal, the authors shall retain all their rights. The following rights on the manuscript are transferred to the publisher, including any supplementary materials and any parts, extracts or elements of the manuscript:</p> <ul> <li>the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript in printed form, including print-on-demand;</li> <li>the right to print prepublications, reprints and special editions of the manuscript;</li> <li>the right to translate the manuscript into other languages;</li> <li>the right to reproduce the manuscript using photomechanical or similar means including, but not limited to photocopy, and the right to distribute these copies;</li> <li class="show">the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript electronically or optically using and all data carriers or storage media, and especially in machine readable/digitalized form on data carriers such as hard drive, CD-ROM, DVD, Blu-ray Disc (BD), Mini Disc, data tapes, and the right to reproduce and distribute the article via these data carriers;</li> <li>the right to store the manuscript in databases, including online databases, as well as the right to transmit the manuscript in all technical systems and modes;</li> <li>the right to make the manuscript available to the public or to closed user groups on individual demand, for use on monitors or other readers (including e-books), and in printable form for the user, either via the Internet, online service, or via internal or external networks.</li> </ul> <p>Authors reserve the copyright to published articles and have the right to use the article in the same manner like third parties in accordance with the licence <strong>Attribution-Non-Commercial-Non-Derivate 4.0 International (CC BY NC ND)</strong>. Thereby they must quote the basic bibliographic data of the source article published in the journal (authors, article title, journal title, volume, pagination).</p> Note of the Editor in Chief https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1822 Mirjana Radović-Marković ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 1-2 v v Fostering Women Entrepreneurs: Psychological Capital, Psychological Empowerment and Entrepreneurial Spirit https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1607 <p><em>Psychological capital is a central notion that has emerged in entrepreneurial behavior. This study looks at how psychological empowerment plays a mediating role in the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and women's entrepreneurial spirit. Data were collected from 203 women-owned manufacturing industries. Through&nbsp;the Smart PLS software, the hypothesis is tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), which uses algorithms and bootstrapping to measure the association. Data analysis concluded that PsyCap has a significant positive relationship with entrepreneurial spirit and psychological empowerment. The association between psychological empowerment and entrepreneurial spirit is also significant and positive. Correspondingly, mediation of psychological empowerment exists between PsyCap and psychological empowerment. In a precise form, PsyCap and psychological empowerment can develop entrepreneurial spirits.</em></p> Pratikshya Bhandari Bijay Sigdel A.K. Mahbubul Hye Sudarshan Bhandari Asmita Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-16 2024-01-16 1-2 1 18 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp1-18 Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Intentions of Female Engineering Students: Mediating Roles of Passion and Creativity https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1709 <p>Entrepreneurship holds a crucial function in addressing societal and economic issues like joblessness and inequalities between different regions. Acknowledging its significance, government officials and educational institutions exert considerable energy towards nurturing individuals into entrepreneurs. Multiple elements influence a person's path to becoming an entrepreneur. This research seeks to examine how one's entrepreneurial attitude (EA) impacts one's drive to become an entrepreneur, with passion and creativity serving as an intermediary in this connection. The research is explanatory and employs a survey-based approach. The findings convey that entrepreneurial attitude significantly influences the determination of female engineering students to pursue entrepreneurship. The study highlights the mediating roles of passion and creativity in the relationship between entrepreneurial attitude and intentions. While passion positively mediated the relationship, creativity had a negative mediating effect.</p> Monica J Anuradha P S ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-16 2024-01-16 1-2 19 39 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp19-39 The Effect of Science & Technology Park, Market Segregation and Commercialization Support on Female Entrepreneurship in Pakistan https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1706 <p>Female students have few opportunities and training to develop their entrepreneurial careers in developing economies. The existing literature also provides little discussion of linking women’s entrepreneurial intention with their entrepreneurial careers. The researchers addressed the gaps in the literature by empirically confirming the impact of science and technology parks, market segregation, and commercialization support on female students’ entrepreneurship in Pakistan. The study also tested the moderating role of the economic climate on the relationship between science and technology parks, market segregation, commercialization support, and female students’ entrepreneurship. We used a survey-based data collection approach, and a Likert scale questionnaire was administered. The study used data collected from 247 female students registered in business incubators. The research findings are new in the literature and confirm the science &amp; technology park, market segregation and commercialization support are significant antecedents that influence the entrepreneurial intention of female students in Pakistan. The impact of female students’ entrepreneurial intention is positive on their entrepreneurship careers. Meanwhile, the economic climate is established as a negative moderator between female students’ entrepreneurial intention and their entrepreneurial careers in Pakistan. We recommend that policymakers develop the science &amp; technology park, market segregation and commercialization support for female students to grow their entrepreneurial careers.</p> Muhammad Murad Shahrina Binti Othman Muhamad Ali Imran Bin Kamarudin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 1-2 40 65 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp40-65 Determinants of Digital Technology Adoption Among Women Entrepreneurs https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1747 <p>Women entrepreneurs are promoted to adopt digital technology as a means of enhancing business performance. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the impact of human, social, financial, physical, and intellectual capital on digital technology adoption among women entrepreneurs. A quantitative method is used with an associative type across various business sectors in East Java Province, Indonesia. Furthermore, the sample is selected by purposive sampling with a total of 268 individuals. Data collection is carried out through a questionnaire, while the analysis is performed using PLS-SEM. The results show that human, financial, physical, and intellectual capital have a positive and significant influence on the adoption of digital technology among women entrepreneurs. However, only social capital reports an insignificant influence. Among the examined variables, intellectual capital plays the most crucial role in adopting digital technology. This research provides theoretical and practical implications for women entrepreneurs and the government.</p> Nungky Viana Feranita Andrias Dwi Mahendrawan Asmuni Asmuni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 1-2 66 92 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp66-92 Catalysts for Change: Examining Prosocial Motivation's Role in Fostering Social Entrepreneurial Intentions Among Women in Matrilineal Cultures https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1689 <p><em>Social entrepreneurship is important to attaining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) worldwide. Currently, women have been heavily involved in social entrepreneurship activities. However, until now, a study involving women of Minang ethnicity (matrilinear lineage) on the student's interest in social entrepreneurship still needs to be completed. The objective of this paper is to look into the impact of prosocial and intrinsic motivation antecedents on women’s social entrepreneurial intention. The inquiry model was tested in this study using a quantitative technique. This study involved 250 Minang students (female)who met the criteria that they had taken lectures for at least two semesters in Padang City. The moderating variables were investigated using the Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA) approach effect of intrinsic motivation (STATA). An interesting finding from this study is that prosocial motivation shows a positive and significant effect on social entrepreneurial intention. The urge to engage in social action triggers them to become social entrepreneurs. Although the results of the moderating effect are not proven, the implications of this investigation are very helpful for the government and higher education to develop a social entrepreneurship ecosystem and social entrepreneurship education. The originality of this paper lies in the fact that previous s</em><em>tudies haven’t focused on the role of culture in shaping the social entrepreneurial intention of</em><em> Minang students.</em></p> Purbo Jadmiko Elfitra Azliyanti Linda Wati Muhammad Zakiy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-02-28 2024-02-28 1-2 93 114 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp93-114 Investigating the Relationship between University Environment and Female Student’s Entrepreneurial Thinking in Algeria https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1765 <p><em>Female entrepreneurship is a growing segment which has the potential to promote economic growth and job creation in specific regions and countries. In particular, there is no consensus on the most effective way to foster female entrepreneurship. Universities are well-known actors where female students' entrepreneurial thinking can be developed. Moreover, the educational policies related to supporting students’ entrepreneurial activities differ significantly among institutions and environments. Based on the lens of institutional theory, the aim of this study is to analyze the influences of the university environment on the development of entrepreneurial thinking among Algerian female university students. A self-administered survey was used in this study to gather data from 413 female students enrolled in three different Algerian universities. Using Smart-PLS software, the outcomes assert that the normative and cognitive dimensions significantly influence entrepreneurial thinking among female business students in Algerian universities. Such a finding contradicts past research on the impact of the regulative dimension and brings fresh insights into the role of the support of Algerian higher education institutions in fostering the entrepreneurial thinking of their female business students.</em></p> Atmane Saadaoui Armanurah Mohamad Shamsul Huda Abd Rani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-03-04 2024-03-04 1-2 115 140 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp115-140 The Role of Gender in Fostering Interest in Entrepreneurship in Indonesia https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1698 <p><em>Gender in entrepreneurship is an important issue. This research aims to determine the role of gender in the influence of entrepreneurial knowledge on entrepreneurial interest, which is mediated by entrepreneurial attitudes and subjective entrepreneurial norms. The respondents in this research were 156 active Strata-1 students, 115 female students, and 41 male students. The research method used is quantitative with a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The main limitation of this research is that it only examines the role of gender in the influence of entrepreneurial knowledge on entrepreneurial interest, which is mediated by entrepreneurial attitudes and subjective entrepreneurial norms. </em><em>The research findings indicate that gender moderation is more pronounced among females, with females exhibiting a more positive and significant influence on hypotheses five through seven</em><em>. The results of the hypotheses show that entrepreneurial knowledge does not significantly influence entrepreneurial attitudes. However, the second hypothesis demonstrates </em><em>a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial knowledge and subjective norms of entrepreneurship.</em><em> Additionally, the third hypothesis highlights the positive impact of </em><em>entrepreneurial attitudes on entrepreneurial interest</em><em>. Finally, </em><em>the fourth hypothesis suggests that entrepreneurial subjective norms significantly influence interest in entrepreneurship.</em></p> Riyanto Efendi Hari Mulyadi Disman Disman Imas Purnamasari Prisilia Angel Tantri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-03-19 2024-03-19 1-2 141 156 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp141-156 Digitalisation, Growth Vision and Gender Equality Practices in the Machines and Equipment Sector – Does Gender Matter? https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1787 <p>This paper explores the nuanced relationship between gender diversity in senior management and key aspects of organizational dynamics in the machines and equipment sector in the Republic of Serbia. The aim is to uncover differences in digitalization, growth strategies and gender equality measures between companies led by women and men. Employing field research methods, specifically utilizing Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing, the results show that companies led by women have a higher propensity to adopt information and communication technologies, a more optimistic view of their future development over the next five years, greater gender diversity among employees and more robust implementation of gender equality policies compared to companies led exclusively by men. The research findings highlight the significant impact of gender diversity in leadership on business outcomes and show that women-led companies are proactively embracing digitalization, promoting growth optimism and implementing gender equality initiatives. These findings offer valuable insights for business leaders, policymakers and researchers working on initiatives to promote diversity, equality, and technological progress.</p> Lazar Živković Dijana Štrbac Mihailo Paunović ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-03-19 2024-03-19 1-2 157 176 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp157-176 Psychological Capital and Work Stress Mediated by Authentic Leadership and Moderated by Gender https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1733 <p>The purpose of this study was to validate a model that examines the effect of psychological capital on work stress, the mediation of authentic leadership, and the moderating effect of gender on this relationship. The study used a structural equation analysis to validate the research hypotheses in a sample of firms from different industries. The results confirm that psychological capital has a negative impact on work stress, as well as a positive relationship with authentic leadership, and the latter has a negative impact on work stress. The mediating effect of authentic leadership on the relationship between psychological capital and work stress was also confirmed. In addition, gender moderation shows that the impact of psychological capital on reducing work stress is stronger for women than for men. The findings provide conceptual information for improving employee performance by empirically validating the relationship between three constructs that have not previously been studied in an integrated manner. It also takes into account the differences between men and women in coping with work stress, which is very important for organizations. The surveys of the constructs studied are a potential source of information for managers because they help identify factors that contribute to improved employee performance. As with all research that examines psychological constructs, the present study has limitations related to the operationalization of these constructs. Future studies could replicate and extend the research in other economic sectors and with other demographic and cultural variables. The influence of other contexts on the relationships studied could be identified.</p> Carlos Armando Bazán Tejada Jaime Rivera Camino ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 1-2 177 206 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp177-206 Perceived Technological Innovativeness, Entrepreneurial Proactiveness, and Performance in Established Women-Led Companies https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1779 <p class="Apstrakttekst">The contribution of women as corporate executives to their companies’ entrepreneurial outcomes is significant, as they can often enhance critical aspects of organizational innovativeness and proactiveness. This research investigated the effect of perceived technological innovativeness (PTI) on perceived entrepreneurial proactiveness (PEP) and, subsequently, the effect of PEP on the perceived company performance (PCP) of established firms with females in their top management teams. An examination of a judgmental sample of 83 female executives employed in Greek firms with over €10 million annual turnover showed that PTI had a significant and positive effect on PEP, and subsequently, PEP had a significant and positive effect on PCP. Apart from corroborating existing literature about the positive impact of entrepreneurial proactiveness on company performance, the study indicated that, according to the perceptions of female executives, entrepreneurial proactiveness acts as a bridge between technological innovativeness and company performance. Thus, it appeared that when a company is characterized by (or fosters the advancement of) technological innovativeness, it encourages creative thinking and focuses on opportunity identification and exploitation. This proactive approach to technological innovativeness enables the organization to improve its performance by staying ahead of its competitors, adapting to the dynamic environment, anticipating future market trends and exploiting opportunities.</p> Nansy Karali Christos Livas Faidon Theofanidis ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 1-2 207 226 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp207-226 Women Entrepreneurship Development During COVID-19 Pandemic https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1735 <p>Little research attention has been drawn to the negative versus positive effects of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on women-led enterprises. The Nigerian context that focuses on women of the most renowned entrepreneurial ethnic group in Sub-Saharan Africa has not been explored in the academic literature. This study explores the perceived effects of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on women entrepreneurship development in Nigeria by focusing on Igbo women entrepreneurs. A qualitative survey involving in-depth interviews of 28 nascent and established Igbo women entrepreneurs was conducted.&nbsp; Leveraging the Framing Effect Theory, thematic analysis was performed on the collected data. Findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic had both negative (loss of revenues, difficulty in repaying ongoing loans, damage of goods in the store, and inability to meet set growth targets) and positive (innovativeness, entrepreneurship opportunities, fulfilling entrepreneurship ambition, and digitization of entrepreneurship) effects on Igbo women-owned enterprises in Southeast Nigeria. However, contrary to previous research, nascent entrepreneurs are more positively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic than experienced/established entrepreneurs. The study, thus, contributes to theory and practice by providing insightful directions for policymaking on women entrepreneurship development during economic crisis.</p> Agu Godswill Agu Ihuoma Godswill Agu Aidin Salamzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 1-2 227 247 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp227-247 Advancing Women’s Empowerment: Influential Factors in The Educational Sector of Jordan https://library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1780 <p>Women’s empowerment is crucial in creating a more equitable society, breaking gender barriers, and fostering sustainable growth by harnessing the talents and contributions of women, especially in the education sector. The percentage of women in the labor force in Jordan is among the lowest worldwide; thus, there is a need to examine the factors affecting this phenomenon. The presented study aims to examine the underlying factors that impact women's empowerment in Jordan’s education sector. The selected factors were economic needs, job efficiency, leadership, social needs, organizational commitment, organizational satisfaction, and public policy. The study used convenience sampling to collect data. A survey questionnaire was the main technique for data collection. In total, 367 questionnaires were distributed to women who occupy administrative positions; 311 questionnaires were systematically gathered (84.7% response rate). Structural equation modeling was set as the basis of analysis. The results suggested that economic needs, job efficiency, leadership, social needs, organizational commitment, organizational satisfaction, and public policy have a positive direct impact on women's empowerment in Jordan’s education sector. Further studies are encouraged to confirm the findings by taking the background of the respondents into account.</p> Eman Awad Albaddawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-18 2024-04-18 1-2 248 269 10.28934/jwee24.12.pp248-269