Main Article Content
In general accounts of black soap production, it is traced to West Africa. And prominent across, Ghana, Benin Republic, Cote de Ivoire and Nigeria. However, this paper examines the nature of entrepreneurship associated with black soap production and trade in Ibadan of the twentieth century. The work analyses how women dominated the industry and its interface between the village and Ibadan city markets. The work locates the characteristics of innovation and market development imaged by women to earn livelihoods in black soap trade in Ibadan city and village. The paper uses the Asuwada sociation theory to explain the entrepreneurial resilience of women in Olode village. The work uses the historical approach to examine the city-village interface. Oral interviews were conducted with women involved in production and trade since the early twentieth century.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, authors shall transfer the copyright to the publisher. If the submitted manuscript is not accepted for printing by the journal, the authors shall retain all their rights. The following rights on the manuscript are transferred to the publisher, including any supplementary materials and any parts, extracts or elements of the manuscript:
- the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript in printed form, including print-on-demand;
- the right to print prepublications, reprints and special editions of the manuscript;
- the right to translate the manuscript into other languages;
- the right to reproduce the manuscript using photomechanical or similar means including, but not limited to photocopy, and the right to distribute these copies;
- the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript electronically or optically using and all data carriers or storage media, and especially in machine readable/digitalized form on data carriers such as hard drive, CD-ROM, DVD, Blu-ray Disc (BD), Mini Disc, data tapes, and the right to reproduce and distribute the article via these data carriers;
- the right to store the manuscript in databases, including online databases, as well as the right to transmit the manuscript in all technical systems and modes;
- the right to make the manuscript available to the public or to closed user groups on individual demand, for use on monitors or other readers (including e-books), and in printable form for the user, either via the Internet, online service, or via internal or external networks.
Authors reserve the copyright to published articles and have the right to use the article in the same manner like third parties in accordance with the licence Attribution-Non-Commercial-Non-Derivate 4.0 International (CC BY NC ND). Thereby they must quote the basic bibliographic data of the source article published in the journal (authors, article title, journal title, volume, pagination).
 Atanda, J.A. 1980. An Introduction to Yoruba History. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.
 Austin G. 2005. Labour, Land and Capital in Ghana: From Slavery to Free Labour in Asante, 1807-1956. Rochester: University of Rochester Press.
 Awe, B. 1977.“The Iyalode in the Traditional Yoruba Political System”, in Schlgel, A. (Ed) Sexual Stratification: A Cross Cultural View (New Haven: Yale University Press) 144-160.
 Awe, B. 1973. “Militarism and Economic Development in Nineteenth Century Yoruba Country: The Ibadan Example”. The Journal of African History 14(1), 65-77.
 Awe, B., Mabogunje, A., & Lloyd, P.C. (Eds.) 1967. The City of Ibadan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
 Callaway, H. 1967. From Traditional Crafts and Modern Industries in Awe, B., Mabogunje, A., & Lloyd, P.C. (Eds.) The City of Ibadan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)153-172.
 Chileshe J. (Ed.) 1992. Nothing Wrong with Africa, Except… (New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House).
 Clarke, W.H. 1972. Travels and Explorations in Yorubaland, 1854-1858 and with an Introduction by J.A. Atanda, (Ibadan: Ibadan University Press).
 Clemence, R.V. and Doody, F.S. 1950. The Schumpeterian System Cambridge: Addison-Wesley Press.
 Cummings, R. 1995. African entrepreneurship: Past, Present, and Future, paper Presented at the carter Lecture series symposium Gainesville, Florida.
 Fafunwa, A.B. 1973. History of Education in Nigeria. Lagos: NPS Educational
 Falola, T. 1984. The Political Economy of a Pre-colonial African State: Ibadan, 1830-1900. Ife: University of Ife Press.
 Falola, T. 1989. Politics and Economy in Ibadan, 1893-1945. Ibadan: Modelor Publishers
 Falola, T. 2012. Ibadan: Foundation, Growth and Change, 1830-1960. Ibadan: Bookcraft
 Fyfe, C. 1965. “West African Trade” in Ajayi, J.F and Espie, I. (Eds.) A Thousand Years of West African History, (Ibadan: Ibadan University Press)
 Hodder, B.W. and Ukwu, U.I. 1969. Markets in West Africa. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.
 Mabogunje, A. 1968. Urbanisation in Nigeria. London: University of London Press.
 McIntosh, M.K. 2009. Yoruba Women, Work and Social Change. Indiana: Indiana University Press.
 Ochonu, M. 2020. ‘African Entrepreneurship: the fetish of personal responsibility’ http://roape.net/2020/05/26/african-entrepreneurship-the-fetish-of-personal-responsibility/
 Oladejo M.T. 2019. “Settlement Patterns and Security Institutions in Ibadan in the Nineteenth Century” in AyodejiOlukoju, Olutayo Adesina, Abimbola Adesoji, Saheed Amusa (Eds.) Security Challenges and Management in Modern Nigeria (UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing).
 Oladejo, M.T. 2018. Female Historians and Knowledge Production for Women’s Studies in Africa: The Nigerian Example since 1974 International Journal of Gender and Women Studies, Vol.6, No.1, 30-37.
 Omobowale, A.O. & Akanle, O. 2017. Asuwada Epistemology and Globalised Sociology: Challenges of the South Sociology 51(1), 43-59.
 Roschenthaler U. and Schulz D. 2016. Cultural Entrepreneurship in Africa Routledge African Studies
 Sheldon, K. 2017. African Women: Early History to the 21st Century. Indiana: Indiana University Press.
 Spring A. and McDade B.E. (Ed.) 1998. African entrepreneurship: Theory and Reality. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
 Sudarkasa, N. 1974. Where Women Work: A Study of Yoruba women in the market place and in the home Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, No. 53, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan.